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The continuing interest in and attraction of psychodynamic psychotherapy are likely due to the considerable intuitive appeal of the underlying concept that facilitated selfunderstanding can lead to improvement of mental disorders. Despite that appeal, the issue of empirical demonstration of efficacy is of central importance to clinicians, patients, and policy makers; thus, Leichsenring and Rabung have performed a valuable service by collating and analyzing the available evidence on that issue. As these authors point out, there is evidence and abundant clinical experience indicating that despite the desire for brief, cost-effective interventions, patients with complex mental disorders, which they reasonably define as personality disorders, chronic disorders (duration of at least a year), and patients with multiple comorbid disorders, are often unlikely to respond to short-term treatments.

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